Correlation Between Diabetes Self-Management and Nutritional Status of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Hospital


  • Rizki Andriani STIKes Medika Seuramoe Barat Meulaboh, Aceh, Indonesia
  • Yulia Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  • Riri Maria Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia



Diabetes Self-Management, Diet, Nutritional status


Diabetes Mellitus patients must maintain constant glucose control to avoid complications. Diet is one type of diabetes management that can be accomplished through self-management (DSM). DSM activity greatly influences patients since the patient can independently manage and apply dietary guidelines in daily life. This study aims to analyze the correlation between DSM and nutritional status in patients with diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted in three types A hospitals in Jakarta using a cross-sectional design with 260 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The measurement of DSM activity was measured using the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DMSQ), measuring food intake through a questionnaire of 1x24 hours food recall and nutritional status assessed by body mass index (BMI). This study shows that 53.1 % of respondents have adequate food intake, 52. 7% of respondents have an inadequate level of diabetes self-management, and 56. 6% of respondents have abnormal nutritional status. There is a significant correlation between DSM and nutritional status (p = 0.002, OR = 2,217). Respondents with an inadequate DSM are at risk of 2,217 times experiencing abnormal nutritional status compared to respondents with an adequate DSM. It is necessary to strengthen education through diabetes self-management in dietary problems repeatedly to patients through meetings held in groups when patients come to the outpatient unit. Hence, patients can fulfill their self-care properly.


Ali, A. F. M., Muis, S. F., & Suhartono, S. (2016). Correlation between Food Intake and Health Status with the Nutritional Status of School Children Age 9-11 in Semarang City. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3), 249.

American Diabetes Association. (2018). Updates to the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2018. Diabetes Care, 41(9), 2045–2047.

Atika, S., Mudatsir, & Mutiawati, E. (2016). Self Management Dengan Prilaku Diet Penderita Diabetes Mellitus Di Puskesmas. Jurnal Ilmu Keperawatan, 4(2), 87–96.

Bilous, R., & Donelly, R. (2014). Buku Pegangan Diabetes (E. K. Yudha & B. Bariid (eds.); 4th ed.). Bumi Medika.

Boucher, J., Kleinridders, A., & Ronald Kahn, C. (2014). Insulin receptor signaling in normal and insulin-resistant states. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 6(1).

Cho, N. H., Kirigia, J., Mbanya, J. C., Ogurstova, K., Guariguata, L., Rathmann, W., Roglic, G., Forouhi, N., Dajani, R., Esteghamati, A., Boyko, E., Hambleton, I., Neto, O. L. de M., Montoya, P. A., Joshi, S., Chan, J., Shaw, J., Samuels, T. A., Pavkov, M., … Editorial. (2017). IDF Diabetes Atlas: Eighth edition 2017. In International Diabetes Federation.

Erpeldinger, S., Rehman, M. B., Berkhout, C., Pigache, C., Zerbib, Y., Regnault, F., Guérin, E., Supper, I., Cornu, C., Kassaï, B., Gueyffier, F., & Boussageon, R. (2016). Efficacy and safety of insulin in type 2 diabetes: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 16(1), 1–15.

Goldenberg, R., & Punthakee, Z. (2013). Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 37(SUPPL.1), 8–11.

Heinrich, E., Schaper, N. C., & De Vries, N. K. (2010). Self-management interventions for type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. In European Diabetes Nursing (Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 71–76).

Ouyang, C.-M., Dwyer, J. T., Jacques, P. F., Chuang, L.-M., Haas MS, C. F., & Weinger, K. (2015). Diabetes self-care behaviours and clinical outcomes among Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 24(3), 438–443.

Panagioti, M., Richardson, G., Small, N., Murray, E., Rogers, A., Kennedy, A., Newman, S., & Bower, P. (2014). Self-management support interventions to reduce health care utilisation without compromising outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Health Services Research, 14(1), 1–14.

Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia (PERKENI). (2015). Konsensus pengelolaan dan pencegahan diabetes melitus tipe 2 di Indonesia 2015. Pengurus Besar Perkeni.

Ponzo, V., Rosato, R., Tarsia, E., Goitre, I., De Michieli, F., Fadda, M., Monge, T., Pezzana, A., Broglio, F., & Bo, S. (2017). Self-reported adherence to diet and preferences towards type of meal plan in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 27(7), 642–650.

Sami, W., Ansari, T., Butt, N. S., & Hamid, M. R. A. (2017). Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. International Journal of Health Sciences, 11(2), 65–71.

Schmitt, A., Gahr, A., Hermanns, N., Kulzer, B., Huber, J., & Haak, T. (2013). The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ): Development and evaluation of an instrument to assess diabetes self-care activities associated with glycaemic control. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11(1), 1.

Setyorini, A. (2017). Stres dan Koping pada Pasien Dengan DM Tipe 2 dalam Pelaksanaan Manajemen Diet di Wilayah Puskesmas Banguntapan II Kabupaten Bantul. Health Sciences and Pharmacy Journal, 1(1), 1.

Tahmasebi, R., Noroozi, A., & Tavafian, S. S. (2015). Determinants of self-management among diabetic patients: A path analysis. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 27(2), NP524–NP534.

Veghari, G., Sedaghat, M., Joshaghani, H., Hoseini, S. A., Niknezad, F., Angizeh, A., Tazik, E., & Moharloei, P. (2010). Association between socio-demographic factors and diabetes mellitus in the north of Iran: A population-based study. International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2(3), 154–157.

Wang, D. D., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Precision nutrition for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. In The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology (Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 416–426). Elsevier Ltd.

Waspadji, S. (2018). Mekanisme Dasar dan Pengelolaan yang Rasional -- Diabetes Melitus, Penyakit Kronik dan Pencegahannya. Penatalaksanaan Diabetes Melitus Terpadu; Balai Penerbit FK UI.

Wattanakul, B. (2012). Factors Influencing Diabetes Self-Management Behaviors among Patients with T2DM in Rural Thailand [University of Illinois]. In University of Illinois – Chicago.

Wu, H., Yang, S., Huang, Z., He, J., & Wang, X. (2018). Type 2 diabetes mellitus prediction model based on data mining. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, 10(December 2017), 100–107.

Yuan, C., Lai, C. W. K., Chan, L. W. C., Chow, M., Law, H. K. W., & Ying, M. (2014). The effect of diabetes self-management education on body weight, glycemic control, and other metabolic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2014.

Zhou, X., Ji, L., Ran, X., Su, B., Ji, Q., Pan, C., Weng, J., Ma, C., Hao, C., Zhang, D., Hu, D., CCMR Advisory Board, & CCMR-3B Study Investigators (2016). Prevalence of Obesity and Its Influence on Achievement of Cardiometabolic Therapeutic Goals in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis of the Nationwide, Cross-Sectional 3B Study. PloS one, 11(1), e0144179.